What is meant by dental surgery?
When the dentition is artificially modified by means of certain medical procedures (which could involve surgery involving the gums or the teeth, or the jaw bones) for improving functioning it is termed as a dental surgery.
When is a dental surgery advised?
Dental scaling and polishing is advised in the following cases:
- Tooth removal(extraction) of impacted tooth
- Removal of third molar or wisdom tooth
- When there is tooth loss certain surgical procedures might be required such as implants
- Jaw related problems which includes:
- Jaw growth is not equal
- To treat inappropriately fitting dentures
- Joint disorders related to the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
- In cases of injury, infection or lesions (which includes lesion requiring biopsy, removal) related to the face.
- For repair of cleft lip and palate
- Snoring or sleeping problems
- Gum surgeries which includes:
- Pocket reduction (also known as gingival flap surgery)
- Crown lengthening
What preparation is required before starting dental surgery?
The preparation depends on the requirement of the surgery. Various preparations done before most of the dental surgeries include:
- Thorough medical history along with the history of medications, allergies.
- Appropriate clinical examination of the area.
- X-rays of the area or the entire mouth depending on the requirement.
- Explaining the type of anaesthetia which will be used.
What steps are followed during the surgery?
The various surgeries and the steps that are followed are listed below:
After injecting anaesthetia, after it starts acting gums surrounding the tooth are slightly separated and using an instrument like forceps, etc. the tooth is extracted.
Disimpaction of third molars:
Third molars erupt between 18 to 35 years, occasionally face problems with lack of room space to erupt completely or they erupt in awkward directions. They are covered by a small flap of gums, causing food entrapment leading to swelling, pain and difficulty in opening mouth. This condition is called ‘pericoronitis’. At times, these teeth are extracted using a minor surgical procedure called Impaction Surgery.
These are placed in the jawbone surgically when there is loss of tooth as tooth-root replacements
You may face problem while breathing, eating, swallowing or speaking when there is inappropriate or failure of growth of either, the upper or the lower jaws. Sometimes even making dentures several times may fail due to inappropriate jaw anatomy .Sometimes due to the inappropriate functioning of TMJ you might face problems such as headaches, etc. All these conditions needs to be corrected using jaw surgeries.
Surgery for facial injury, infections, lesions or deformities like cleft lip and palate:
Sometimes facial injury like fracture, biopsies for various lesion diagnosis and removal, also and treatment of facial infection require surgeries. Even the deformity of cleft lip and palate is treated with surgery. Even in patients who suffer from sleep disorders or snoring and cannot be treated with conservative treatment are treated surgically by removing the soft tissues of the oropharynx or the lower jaw
- Pocket reduction:
Overgrown gums are folded and bacteria are removed.
Gum tissue regeneration is promoted by insertion of tissue-stimulating proteins, bone grafts, or membranes, or (or any combination of the three)
- Crown lengthening :
This surgery helps to make your tooth appear longer by removing gum tissue overgrowth.
What precautions should be taken post-procedure for success of the treatment?
The post-surgery care includes maintenance of good oral hygiene by:
- After extraction avoiding eating hard or hot food or drinks, avoiding spitting for a day and brushing gently in the affected area.
- Rinsing after every meals
- Brushing (using fluoride containing pastes), and then rinsing with an antibacterial mouthwash, and flossing using proper techniques.
- Follow-up check-ups.